Sugarcane is a perennial grass belonging to Poaceae family and it has been cultivated worldwide more than 90 countries because of its economical and medicinal value of high-yielding products. Refined sugar is obtained as a primary product from sugarcane juice, an eminent raw material of sugarcane. Other commercial value-added by-products such as brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery are also obtained during the process in an unrefined form. The expensive carnauba wax is produced from sugarcane wax and utilized in cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications. Sugarcane juice is widely used in traditional medicine system of several countries mainly in India, to treat several health issues such as jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. In this chapter, various types of phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products are summarized. The phytochemistry of sugarcane juice, sugarcane wax, leaves, and its products also established the occurrence of various fatty acids, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. Necessity on advanced research for the production of various medicinal products from sugarcane and its phytopharmacological study has been summarized.
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